Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Flat Panel Detectors In Digital Radiography For Dental Imaging

Digital radiography is a form of X ray imaging technique involving usage of X-ray sensors in place of photographic films. The advantages of using digital radiography include:
  • Primarily it is time efficient.
  • It is able to electronically trans and improve the quality of images.
  • It uses less radiation to produce an image of same as against ordinary radipgraph.
The two major variants of digital image capture devices:
  • Flat panel detectors (FPDs)
  • High-density line-scan solid state detectors

Flat Panel Detectors  are a class of solid state x ray digital radiography devices similar to image sensors used in digital photography and video and are further classified in two main categories:

1. Indirect FPDs: It has  aluminium-silicon (A-Si) detector with a scintillator in the detector’s outer layer, which allows conversion of  X-rays to light. Hence it is called indirect imaging device. The light is passed through a A-Si photo-diode layer where it is converted to a digital signal. The digital signal is then read out by thin transistors. The image data file is sent to a computer for display.

2. Direct FPDs: Amorphous selenium(a-se) FPDs are known as “direct” detectors because X-ray photons are converted directly into charge.  X-ray photons create electron-hole pairs in a-Se, and the transit of these electrons and holes depends on the potential of the bias voltage charge. As the holes are replaced with electrons, the resultant charge pattern in the selenium layer is read out by an active matrix array, electrometer probes.

Principle of flat panel detectors:
The working principle for flat panel detectors include the passage of X rays through the subject used for imaging and go strike the detector. Due to the differences in the  focusing x-rays, the sensors have exactly the same size as the image they capture.  millions of 0.2mm pixels each  with a thin film transistor forming a grid pattern behind the scintillator as a layer on the glass substrate, each pixel contains a photo-diode which generates an electrical signal in proportion to the light produced which are used to produce accurate and sensitive digital representation of the x-ray image.

Radiological examinations in dental
  • In intraoral examination the film or sensor is placed in the mouth focusing  the oralmaxillofacial  region.
  • In extraoral examination where the film or sensor is placed outside the mouth to visualize the entire oral maxillofacial region.
Benefits of flat panel detectors in digital radiography for dentistry
Digital radiography in dentistry provides the clinician with the ability to store their images on a computer. This provides two key advantages over film radiography :
  • Helps in aiding diagnostics and providing easier patient communication.
  • To communicate images electronically
  • No need of photographic films.
Hence the use of Flat-panel detectors are more sensitive and faster than film. They are lighter,  more durable, smaller in volume, more accurate, and have less image distortion than other imaging methods.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Online Advertisement: Its Features

Online advertising is a thing where every business should think about. 85% of the products and services begin online. Compared to that of traditional methods of advertising online advertising have some of their own characteristics. This article mentions some list of characteristics of online advertising.

Features of online advertising
Ad serving Being independent: Online advertising belongs to on-demand advertising which features the classification of news paper advertising.
  • It enables to look over and presents information collectively in need thus saving time, passive attention concentration and avoid being useless.
Covering wide areas: Online advertising provides case analysis, professional knowledge and skills it can reach people all over the world via internet without any restrictions to time and domain.

Online modifications: Revising the advertisement done on traditional media is difficult and takes some time and money while in online advertising adjustments can be made where the content can be changed according tot he demand and needs.
  • Also the operational strategy can be changed and implemented when required.
Statistical accuracy: Online advertising can conduct efficient and accurate statistics on the number of times the advertisement is made public,estimating the number of clicks users make if they are interested in the advertisement and the places they look up for the advertisements.
  • This way it helps customers to make exact evaluations of the effects of advertising and also examine the strategies of advertising.
Direct and interactive experience: Online advertising carriers are generally hypertext and multimedia documents.
  • If consumers are interested in a particular product the detailed information about it can be known by on click.
  • Usage of new technologies and applications which are virtual allows the customers to experience goods or services, conduct booking transactions and settlement over internet which strengthens up the progress of online advertisement.
Some other features for effective online advertising are:
  • Choosing the right audience
  • Effective banner advertisement creation
  • Select the right channel for communication
  • Speaking locally
  • Select the right key words
  • Go for a cost effective advertising strategy
  • Focus more on getting the targeted traffic
The above are the various features of effective inline advertisement.

Thursday, September 4, 2014

How to drive a car in snow

Driving a car in winter season is a challenging task to both you and your car. The cold weather examines the limits of car's engine condition – how fit it is for driving. The dangerous driving conditions in winter test your abilities as a driver as well.

Driving car while the roads are snowy and icy can be very stressful. In this article, know how to keep your car under control in snowy and icy roads.

Here are some of the steps how to drive your car in winter condition.

How to drive your car in snowy and icy roads
  • Get your car serviced before winter starts
    • Before the winter seasons starts get your car serviced.
    • Make sure your battery, cooling system, and windshield wipers are in good condition.
    • It is better to service your car regularly in winter season to avoid breaking down in while your driving in snowy weather.
  • Buy a new snow tires
    • Snow tires differ from normal ones.
    • Snow tires are built with special treads that takeaway the snow and allow the vehicle to have better amount of friction between the tires and the snowy roads.
    • Snow tires are also made of a more protective type of rubber material. Due to this,  snow tires don't freeze hard in snowy weather condition.
    • For rear-wheel drive, add snow tires to the rear end.
    •  If car's are equipped with tires that have very thin tread linesdue to this clogging of tire occurs easily making steering difficult.
    • The rear tires should have equal friction as the front tires for better handling especially when making turns.
  • Look ahead and keep a very safe distance from vehicles ahead of you
    • Look ahead from your vehicles in front of you and look out for brake lights.
    •  If you have kept safe distance you can able to bring your vehicle to a stop with distance to spare.
    • Instead of having to hit on your brakes and skidding into the vehicles in front of you.
  • Better friction between your car tire and the road
    • The wheels should have better friction avoiding slipping.
    • If you have an automatic transmission system put the lever to 2 position.
    • In many cars the transmission system lock in second gear to provide easier starting from a slippery surface.
  • Drive slowly
    • Even though your good in driving and have experience in driving in snowy weather condition, the way your car will move on snow or ice always has a big element of unpredictable.
    • Do not accelerate into turns. Gliding through the turn works best in deep snow or icy roads.
  • When stopping, plan in advance and apply the brakes gently
    •  If your car is equipped with anti-lock brakes, a better way to stop the car quickly is to apply constant pressure to the brake pedal.
    • The Anti Breaking system will maintain friction and you can able to steer the car.
    • If your car is not equipped with anti-lock brakes and the wheels do lock then release the brake and re-apply.
    • Do not try to steer your car that are not equipped with Anti Breaking System if your wheels are locked or close to locking.

Following these points will make it easy for your drive in snowy weather in winter.

Monday, August 25, 2014

Ways to Promote Your Company's Event

Promoting a company's event raises awareness in public. Promoting is necessary to expand company business and raising awareness of company's new products. Before promoting your company event, it is important to decide what you want to advertise and the way to promote your company's event.

The objective of the advertisement should be clear and should fit the goal of company's event. These are several ways to promote your company's event:
  • Print media
  • Electronic media
  • Outdoor media
  • Transit media
Print media
Promoting your company event through print media is a best way of advertisement. Print media includes news papers, magazines and press releases. News papers and magazines are the best way of advertisement because it costs less compared to television and radio. But the life span of news papers and magazines are very short and it can reach educated people only. Press meeting on your company event expands your company business.

Electronic media
Electronic media is the best way to deliver information to all classes of people. Electronic media includes television, radio and internet. Radio is the traditional method of promoting an event. Television is the best advertising media and reaches to targeted audience effectively.

Internet includes sending e-mails, advertising in social networking sites, etc. Develop an online web site to promote your company's event and the details of the event should be clear and make a facility of online registration.

Outdoor media
Outdoor media uses several tools and techniques to attract audience. Outdoor media includes hoarding, banners and balloons. For promoting your company's event, you should select a place where most of the targeted audience live. Ensure that message on the banner should fit the goal of the event. Banner advertisement captures interest on audience.

Transit media
Transit media includes buses, trains and trucks. It is the new form of promoting company's event. In this, a large display screen is attached to the back of the bus or truck and it is goes to different locations within a city to promote company's event. Pasting banners to the buses, trains and trucks are also used to promote a company event.

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Treatment for Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is the type of head and neck cancer. It is the abnormal growth of cells in the oral cavity. Oral cancer includes lips, tongue and throat. Cancer can be treated or cured depending on the stage of cancer. The treatment methods for oral cancer includes
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
1. Surgery
Surgery is very commonly performed for treating oral cancer. In early stage, surgery is used to cure oral cancer and in advanced stages, used to relieve from symptoms of cancer. This involves the removal of tumor from the site. Prior to the surgery general anesthesia is given to prevent discomfort to patient.

This surgery involves the removal of tissue where tumor is affected. Then a small piece of healthy tissue is removed and examined under microscope to ensure all the cancer cells are removed.

There are various types of surgeries based on the site of oral cavity gets affected.
Glossectomy involves surgery to remove tumor from the tongue.
Mhos surgery is meant to remove tumor from lips.
Mandibulotomy involves surgery on jaw bone.
These procedures are done in combination with radiation therapy to destroy tumors,  if any, left out after the surgery.

2. Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy uses high energy radiation used to destroy cancer cells. It is effective for treating small tumors where surgery is not required to cure. Radiation therapy destroys both normal and cancer cells but normal cells gets repaired by themselves.
In radiation therapy, the complete dose of radiation is break down into small segments and given in regular intervals. This gives the time to repair normal cells and also prevents discomfort to patient.

Types of radiation therapy
  • Internal radiation therapy
  • External radiation therapy
Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy)
This uses radio active materials to deliver radiation directly to cancer cells. After placement of these in the site x-rays are taken to ensure that they are placed in appropriate place. This is safer as other parts are less effected.

External radiation therapy
In this a beam of radiation is produced from machine from outside of the body. Advanced techniques in this are 3D-CRT and IMRT uses CT scan to locate the cancer site and delivers the radiation to the exact site from various angles.
Radio sensitizers are the drugs given to the patient before radiation therapy. This makes the cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy and improves the effectiveness of treatment.

3. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is for patients who got cancer again after surgery or radiation. It is used to treat oral cancer that has spread to the other parts of the body. This therapy uses anti cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells in body. This is also called systemic therapy as it directly reaches into blood stream and inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
The drugs used in this therapy are Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil. Drugs in combination   is more effective than used alone. Chemotherapy is also used in combination with radiation and surgery in advanced stages.

These are the treatments used to treat or cure the cancer. Depending on the severity these therapies are used alone or in combination.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Get to Know Pay Per Click Marketing Strategy

Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet marketing strategy in which marketers pay for each add clicked whether the sale is made or not, thus attracting many people to visit their website. It is one of the essential marketing tools for any business.  Pay per click shows the marketers how effective is their advertising strategy. This article discusses PPC and tips for small businesses.

PPC tips for small businesses
Small businesses have weak finances and therefore cannot afford to purchasing  expensive marketing strategies. PPC comes as good tool for such businesses.

Understanding your business
The first thing you should know before starting PPC campaign is to understand your business. This is very important for any business as it will help you avoid mistakes that you are likely to commit in future.

Determining your budget
It is important for any business to establish budget that will help the business in determining the amount of investment to be done. It can be helpful in getting budget recommendation from PPC company. PPC cost totally depends on the type of nische you are in.

Defining goals clearly
It is important for any business to establish their goals clearly before creating an account for pay per click what are you planning to achieve, by when and how the success should be measured. And once you have clearly defined goals, you can develop a strategy that will help you in maximizing ROI returns on investment.

Knowing about target market
If you want to make your business marketing successful, you need to understand the target market. You need to research on the kind of people that will be interested in your product or service.

Creating a list of keywords
Creating keywords should be on the top priority. Small businesses should have different keywords for different services in order to target better.
Consider the following when creating keywords:
  • To make yourself visible for people especially who are searching for your company's name, it is important for you to include brand or business name in the keywords.
  •  Not only your company's name, you should also target competitive names, thus showing your add when searchers queries them.
  • It is important for any business to include city code and also the information of neighboring city or country. It depends on how broad your target market is.
Creating sparkling add on copy that leads to landing pages relevantly
An add-on copy to the landing page should really attract visitors' attention and make sure that you add is having a landing page on website. The appearance of the add and its words should be in a way that match the initials of the add. Maintaining consistency in creating add on landing pages can improve your company's ranks.

PPC is an important marketing tool that helps businesses promote themselves  online. It is easy to monitor the performance. You can do it in terms of amount of expenses to be borne, number of clicks that were really conversions, location where clicks happen, etc. Make sure to research thoroughly before you venture out for a PPC strategy for your business.

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Common Tongue Problems in Adults and its Causes

Tongue is one of the organ in our body. It is flexible and plays an important role in eating and drinking. Problems in tongue makes us feel difficulty in eating and drinking. Some of the common tongue problems are white tongue, red tongue, black hairy tongue, enlargement of tongue and fissured tongue.

White tongue: The white patches on the tongue is called oral thrush. It is commonly seen in adults and infants. It is caused by the candida fungus.
  • Causes:
    • It is caused by the fungus called candida
    • Stress
    • Improper wearing of dentures
    • Using medications like inhaled steroids, antibiotics
  • Symptoms:
    • Difficulty in eating
    • Food getting stuck in the throat
  • Treatment:
    • OTC medications
    • Application of anti fungal gels
    • Medicines like anti fungal tablets and anti thrush medicines helps to treat white tongue
Red tongue: In this tongue becomes reddish. This may be due to deficiency of vitamins and geographic tongue. In geographic tongue, reddish spots surrounded by white patches appear on tongue.
  • Causes:
    • Lack of vitamin-B
    • Irritation on tongue due to spicy or hot foods
  • Treatment: Geographic mouth does not require any medication. It can heal within 10 days. If not use anti histamine gels apply on tongue treats geographic tongue.
Black hairy tongue: Small bumps on the tongue surface grow on life time is called black hairy tongue. These appear like black hair on tongue.
  • Causes:
    • Poor oral hygiene
    • Smoking and chewing tobacco products
    • Inflammation of one or more tasty buds
    • Accidentally bite on tongue
  • Treatment:
    • Maintain good oral hygiene
    • Drink plenty of water
    • It can be treated by surgical removal of papillae from tongue
    • Medications like anti fungal and antibiotics
Enlargement of tongue: In medical terms it is called macroglossia. It is the enlargement of tongue which causes difficulty to speak and eat.
  • Causes:
    • Caused by the allergic reactions to drugs and foods
    • Some diseases like anemia, hypothyroidism
  • Treatment:
    • It can be treated by giving speech therapy
    • Glossectomy - Surgical treatment by removal of enlarged tongue
Fissured tongue: Fissured tongue is commonly seen in adults. It is the condition in which grooves or fissures appear on the top surface of the tongue. In this food we eat gets settle in the grooves and development of bacteria takes place. There is no special cause for fissured tongue.
  • Treatment: There is no special treatment for fissured tongue. It can be controlled by brushing teeth and tongue properly to remove debris on grooves on tongue. This prevents the irritation on tongue.

Tuesday, March 11, 2014

What is Gum Disease?

Dentist Hampstead
Swelling, tenderness and bleeding from the gums can be described as gum disease. Early stage of gum disease is called gingivitis. If left untreated, can lead to a severe stage known as periodontitis. In this article, we will discuss the stages and the causes of gum disease.

Stages of Gum Disease
This is the initial stage of gum disease. Usually a mild form of inflammation, tenderness and bleeding gums is associated with gingivitis. This is caused by build up of plaque (the sticky substance that forms on the surface of the teeth). The bacteria in the plaque release toxins that irritates the gum. Lack of good oral hygiene and improper brushing and flossing is the major cause for gum disease.

Dental implants in London
If plaque remains on the teeth for more than 2-3 days, it turns into a hard substance called tartar (calculus) under the gum line. Tartar is difficult to remove by brushing and can only be cleaned by the dentist. If  tartar is left untreated and the build-up continues, and it could lead to advanced stage of gum disease called as periodontitis.

  • Tender or painful gums
  • Red swollen gums
  • Bleeding after brushing or flossing

Cosmetic dentist London
If gingivitis is not treated in its early stage, it starts damaging tissues of the gums and the bone that supports teeth. This can lead to loosening and shifting of teeth. In some severe conditions, teeth may even start falling out. Often gum disease at this stage cannot be treated and may require removal of the teeth.

  • Bad breath (halitosis)
  • Bad taste in the mouth
  • Loose teeth
  • Gums pull out from the teeth (receding gums)
  • Space appearing or deep pockets forming in between the teeth.
Dentist London
Causes of gum disease
Following are the main causes of gum disease:
  • Improper brushing: This is the main cause of gum disease. Brushing regularly is not only important but also the proper technique of brushing, and the toothbrush you use make a lot of difference.
  • Poor flossing: Brushing removes much of the plaque and flossing will do the rest. Cleaning   your mouth is incomplete without flossing your teeth. Flossing remove tiny leftover food particles stuck in between the teeth where your toothbrush can't reach, thus help prevent plaque build up which is the major cause of gum disease.
  • Crunching and grinding teeth: Many people have the habit of crunching and grinding teeth that can put your teeth into most of the trouble. Crunching ice can fracture teeth because of its hardness and its cold temperature. It can even cause cracks (visible through microscope). Cracked or fractured teeth can lead to a number of dental problems.
Many people have the habit of teeth grinding during sleep. Teeth grinding on regular basis can damage your teeth leading to complicated dental problems over time.

Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Ways to Achieve Spiritual Wellness

Spirituality! What it is? How it promotes wellness of a being? Want to know more about spiritual wellness and the ways to achieve them? Here is the solution.

Ways to achieve spiritual wellness

Spirituality is a state when one has belief in own religion and culture and follows rules that are taught by religion. It was followed from ancient times.

Spirituality helps you know the meaning of life and the ways to lead a meaningful life. Following are ways
Way:1 Yoga
  • Yoga is followed since years ago by many yogis to discover the roots of life. Yoga include many postures that activate all chakras in your body.
  • It brings a connection between mind, soul and body. Imprints strong believe in things you like and help to achieve them.
  • Yoga helps to gain knowledge about life and gives strength to do something.
Way:2 Meditation
  • Closing eyes itself is not called as meditation. It has some mudras to follow to create concentration.
  • Meditation involves focusing on a particular point and gaining concentration. Meditation improves concentration and help to deal difficulties in life.
  • Some drastic situations will make you to loose hope on life, but by doing meditation daily, one can gain control over body and mind and be stable at all situations.
Way:3 Biofeedback
  • This is a technology that uses machines that monitor changes in a person while doing different activities. It is a type of treating psychologically to induce hopes in that person.
  • Biofeedback will help reduce stress, increase positive energy and develop strong belief on action.
Way:4 Labryinth
  • It is a Greek methodology that is based on a sacred symbol that looks like a maze.
  • It is a tool of spirituality. It takes into a journey of life and we all know that is is not that easy to pause through maze.
  • Labryinth will teach you about difficulties that one faces in life and how to pass those hurdles. It builds emotional strength and belief.
Way:5 Believe in God
  • Belief in one's religion is belief in God. This habit will allow you .to do prayer and know the secrets of spirituality.
Way:6 Visit sacred place
  • Keeping away all your busy schedule, visiting once in a week to any sacred place like temples, ashrams will help you to gain knowledge and wisdom.
  • We can express our feelings in front of God and reduce burden. We meet variety of people by visiting these places. We can know problems faced by each of us and know the truth of life.
Way:7 Spend time in different activities
  • Allot sometime for personal things, go for a tour to have change from routine life. This gives refreshment and bring new hopes in life.
Way:8 Express gratitude
  •  Show a sense of appreciation even for small things, that will make others happy and you will be happy. Gratitude represents kindness for fellow beings and respect.
  • All the above ways contribute directly or indirectly to attain stability in life what we call spirituality.

Monday, December 2, 2013

Dental Implant Procedure

Dental implants are the permanent solution for the people with missing teeth. A small metallic screw is inserted in the jawbone surgically. Unlike dentures, dental implants are fixed and gives you more natural feel and look. This article contains systematic guidance to dental implant procedure, which will help you in giving an idea about what to expect during the surgery.

Steps in Dental Implant Procedure

Step 1: Evaluation/Examination
Dental implant procedure involves thorough examination to see whether you are the candidate for this procedure. Patients with healthy jawbone and good overall health are the candidates for dental implants. Dental implants are not for the people who are chain smokers, who have immune disease like diabetes and hypertension. Dental professional will ask you to undergo certain examinations and X-rays for determining whether you are a suitable candidate or not for getting dental implants.

Step 2: Placing dental implants
The next step in dental implant surgery is placing of dental implants. After making your mouth numb, an incision in the gums is made by the surgeon for exposing the jawbone. Then a hole is made in your jawbone (an area where tooth is missing) with the help of a drill. A thin titanium screw/rod is placed which will be acting as a tooth root. A few months after placement of this, screw is required for it to fuse with jawbone. This implant is remained hidden under the gums during this period.
You will be feeling some pain after this procedure. Often the pain is mild, but still the discomfort level depends on the person.

Step 3: Replacing protective screw with metal healing cap
After the implants have fused with the jawbone, your surgeon after giving anesthesia will make an incision again at the same place where implants were placed in order to expose them. Then the protective screw in the implant is removed and replaced by metal healing cap. This cap appears like a small metal cylinder that will sit above the gum on the implant.

Step 4: Placing Dental Crowns
The final step of dental implant procedure are implant restoration or placing of dental crown. 2 – 3 weeks after surgery follows the process of dental crown. The surgeon will determine whether the titanium implants are properly fused or not. If fused properly, the dental crown will be fixed on the top of the implant.

Dental implant procedure is useful for those who want to replace their teeth to improve cosmetic appeal and better personality.